Other Scholarships (both Arab and Arab American students)
AAIF Youth Leadership Scholarship
Helen Abbott Community Service Awards The Helen Abbott Community Service Awards honor students and student organizations whose devotion to community service, selfless acts of care, and interest in improving the quality of life for others reflect the life of the Awards’ namesake. The Helen Abbott Community Service Awards is given in two categories: (1) achievement by a college/university student and (2) achievement by a high school student. Each year the Foundation awards a maximum of two $1,000 individual prizes and one $500 grant to a high school student. Organizational community service projects include, but are not limited to: community improvement and service projects such as park clean-ups, recycling programs, volunteering in shelters, tutoring programs, food/toy drives, and ethnic/cultural outreach.
The AAI Foundation's Youth Leadership Awards honors Arab Americans 30 years old or younger for their public and community service. This year's application deadline is March 1, 2017; successful candidates will be notified during the middle of March.
For more information please email Joan Hanna at firstname.lastname@example.org.
The programs listed below are offered by institutions not affiliated with AAI or the AAI Foundation. Please contact each organization directly for further information. To have your scholarship program included on this page please contact Maha Elsamahi.
For American Students of Arab Descent
Application Deadline: September 30th, 2016
The Arab American Association of Engineers and Architects established the Scholarship Awards Program to Arab American Engineering, Architecture, and Computer Science/Information Technology students.
The Award of a scholarship is to be presented to undergraduate or graduate students in the field of engineering, architecture, or computer science/information technology with preference to the undergraduate students. The objective is to promote engineering, architecture, and computer science/information technology as worthy professions and to foster stronger ties between the Association and the Arab American Community.
The number and amount of the scholarship(s) will be decided every year based on the amount raised by the Education and Scholarship Committee for this purpose and will be presented at a function of the Association. The 2016 AAAEA- Capital Area has up to $4,000 to award to the winners. The names of the winner(s) will be announced at the Annual Dinner Gala on October 29, 2016, and the winner(s) will receive a certificate and a check.
For more information please click here:
27484 Ann Arbor Trail
Westland, MI. 48185
(734) 425-1600 fax: (734) 425-3985
Application Deadline: Scholarships due by May 31 every year
Financial aid is given in the form of:
- Direct grants to Charitable organizations;
- Scholarships awarded directly to students by Scholarship Committee;
- Committee-awarded grants for books, papers and research on subjects dealing with Arabic culture.
In the last ten years, more than $800,000 has been spent to financial support students andlocal, national and international charitable organizations. More than 1500 scholarship recipients of the Fund received undergraduate and graduate degrees in such disciplines as medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, education, engineering, science, business administration, law and many more that could be listed.
Please send an email request for a Scholarship Application to email@example.com. All Scholarship applications are due no later than May 31 of each year. Applications are only accepted once a year at the AFRP Annual Ramallah Convention.
At AMIDEAST Education Abroad Programs in the Arab World, we are committed to providing financial assistance to students participating on our programs in the Middle East and North Africa. AMIDEAST currently awards two types of scholarships:
1) AMIDEAST Education Abroad Need-Based Scholarships
2) AMIDEAST Blog Abroad Scholarships
Funding is available only to citizens and permanent residents of the United States participating in AMIDEAST Education Abroad Programs in Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, Oman, and Tunisia. Awards will be made only to students who submit a completed scholarship application and a complete program application by the established deadlines. Scholarship applications from all qualified students will be considered. However, preference will be given to applicants who fulfill one or more of the following criteria:
- First-generation college students and/or members of groups that historically have been underrepresented on study abroad programs
- Demonstrated serious financial need
- Demonstrated academic excellence
- Currently enrolled at a college or university that is either a member of the AMIDEAST Academic Consortium or an AMIDEAST Affiliate.
AUI Program: March 5
Summer Programs: March 15
Fall or Academic Year Programs: April 15
Spring Programs: October 15
Please Note: Listed deadlines are for AMIDEAST programs. You should submit your scholarship applications by the date that applies to your chosen program.
1730 M Street NW, Suite 1100
Washington, DC 20036-4505
(202) 776-9600 fax: (202) 776-7000
Arab American Heritage Council
416 N. Saginaw St. Suite 220
Flint, MI 48502
810.235.2722 fax: 810.235.3514
Application Deadline: TBD for 2017 (as of 05/10/17)
The annual Arab American Heritage Council Scholarship is awarded to qualified students based upon the criteria described below:
- Students must be a high school graduate between the ages of 17-21.
- The student, parent or guardian must be a member in good standing with the AAHC for at least one year to the date of application.
- The student must be able to demonstrate Arab American Heritage.
- Each candidate must provide a transcript of grades for high school junior and senior years; college applications must also include college transcripts for years attending university or college.
- All candidates must provide the following information:
- Birth date
- Attended high school and college applicable
- Grade Point Average
- Career Goal
- Name of AAHC member
- Signature and date
- Please attach to this description, in 250 words or less, of extracurricular and community service activities.
The Arab American Women’s Business Council (AAWBC) wishes to foster the growth and academic achievement of Arab American Women. The AAWBC established a scholarship fund to provide educational opportunities to females of Arab descent in the state of Michigan. Four to five ($1000) scholarships will be awarded in 2014/2015: two scholarships to current college students and two scholarships to senior high school students, and possibly one scholarship at the discretion of the AAWBC Scholarship committee.
Applicants must print the application, fill it out, then send the completed application with additional information to:
AAWBC Head Office
22952 Outer Drive
Dearborn, MI 48124
Application Deadline: TBD for 2017 (as of 05/10/17)
Each year, more than 65,000 undocumented students graduate from high schools in the U.S., but only a fraction continue on to college. For students who want to pursue college, conflicting information about eligibility, legal rights and financial aid can be major barriers. With this in mind, Online Colleges created a college guide for undocumented students that addresses their key concerns:
- Explanation of legal rights, including the DREAM Act and DACA
- How to find and apply for colleges
- Financial aid for undocumented students
ADC Research Institute
1990 M Street NW, Suite 610
Washington, DC 20036
Purpose: To honor Arab-American students who excel in Media Studies.
Eligibility: College students enrolled in the 2017-2018 academic year majoring in journalism, radio, television, and/or film, and who are juniors, seniors, or in graduate school.
Applicants please submit the following items to the ADC Research Institute (HARD copy applications only):
- A one page statement explaining why you merit the scholarship, your goals, and a declaration that you are a U.S. citizen of Arab heritage
- Two (2) original signed letters of recommendation from Mass Communications professors.
- Copies of your articles, DVD’s, films, and so forth (these items will not be returned to you)
- Official academic transcripts (minimum 3.0 GPA)
- Your permanent home address/phone number, e-mail address, and your phone number during the school year, if different
Deadline: June 1, 2017
Note: Incomplete, non-hard copy or late applications will not be accepted.
Submit all materials to:
Jack G. Shaheen Scholarship
ADC Research Institute (ADCRI)
1705 DeSales Street, NW Suite 500
Washington, DC 20036
If you have any questions, call (202) 244-2990 or email firstname.lastname@example.org.
Awards will be presented at the 2017 ADC’s National Convention in Washington, D.C.
13530 Michigan Ave, Suite 227
Dearborn, MI 48126
(313) 846-8480 fax: (313) 846-8480
Application deadline: March 17, 2017
Please read carefully:
The monetary value of the scholarship varies from one academic institution to another, pending the matching agreement we have in place with these universities. The LAHC portion of the scholarship is deposited directly into the students’ accounts and matched by that particular university accordingly. Recipients who choose to switch universities after applying for the scholarship, risk altering the final value of the scholarship received.
- Scholarship Applicants must be U.S. citizens or permanent residents of the Unites States and reside in the state of Michigan.
- Financial need is highly considered.
- All scholarship recipients are expected to attend the following two mandatory meetings. No Exceptions! if you believe that you are unable to commit to attend these two important meetings, we advise you not to proceed with the scholarship application.
- LAHC 29th Annual Awards Gala: Thursday, April 6th, 2017 at 4:30 p.m. Edward- Hotel and Convention Center
- Meeting with Scholarship Recipients: March 30th, 2017 at 6:00 p.m. LAHC Office-Dearborn
An extra credit will be given to applicants as follows:
- Applicants majoring in certain fields specified by the scholarship program sponsors as a condition for awarding the scholarship
- Applicants enrolled or planning to enroll in universities that contribute towards the Scholarship Fund.
Click here to see the required documents and apply for the scholarship.
Learn Arabic through a summer immersion Arabic Academy and Pomona College program. Full scholarships are now available: the QFI grant provides 15 full scholarships (covering tuition, room and board and travel costs) for deserving students interested in studying Arabic. Both non-native and heritage speakers are welcome. To be eligible, students must qualify for financial aid and be able to continue their Arabic studies after participating in MMLA.
Each MMLA student at the Arabic Academy takes the Middlebury Language Pledge, which requires them to speak, read and write only in Arabic for the entire four-week program. The setting on Pomona’s campus offers numerous advantages for students, including a rich array of museums, performance spaces, and activities to give students the freedom to explore the language in a real-world context. Pomona’s proximity to Arab-American communities in Los Angeles also allows students to gain a rich cultural context, including visits to mosques, museums, community centers, restaurants, and more.
NAAP Arab-American scholarship applicants should have demonstrated excellent academic achievement and an appreciation, understanding and promotion of his or her Arab-American identity to the student community at large.
The applicant must be:
- Of Arab heritage
- Enrolled in a university, college, or community college (2016-2017 year)
- Have a minimum GPA of 3.0
- A U.S. citizen, or a non-U.S. citizen living and/or studying in the U.S. at the time of application submission
- Participating in campus activities that embody NAAP's philosophy and values, mission and goals
When is the deadline to apply?
TBD (as of 05/10/17)
How to apply?
Simply fill out the online application here. The application requires the following information:
- Personal statement (written or video): The personal statement should explain how the student's on-campus activity has embodied NAAP's mantra of "Collective Advancement" through the execution of at least one of these five categories:
- Professiona development;
- Community service;
- Student involvement;
- Social and cultural awareness;
- Political advocacy and engagement
- Proof of enrollement in current 2016 - 2017 School Year
- Academic transcripts (minimum 3.0 GPA)
For more information, please visit NAAP's website for more details.
Since 2009 SQCC has offered scholarships for study in Oman for advanced Arabic language students. The SQCC Summer Arabic Language and Media program (SQCC SALAM) has been held in Dhofar, Nizwa, and Muscat, and this year, Manah. The program involves intensive Arabic language coursework in an immersive environment, as well as cultural components and trips around Oman.
The Sultan Qaboos Cultural Center (SQCC) is delighted to announce its 2015 Summer Arabic Language and Media (SALAM) program, a fully-funded intensive Arabic language scholarship program. SQCC supports Arabic language study for students through its annual SALAM program. This intensive Arabic language program will allow students to gain a deeper knowledge of Arabic, while becoming familiar with Omani history and culture.
Eligibility: All applicants must be U.S. citizens, enrolled in a degree seeking program (BA, MA or PhD) in spring 2013, and have completed four semesters (or the equivalent) of university-level Arabic coursework.
Program dates: July 2-August 10, 2017
Location: Manah, Oman at the Sultan Qaboos College for Teaching Arabic Language to Non-Native Speakers
For more information, please visit SQCC’s site here.
Office of Scholarships and Financial Services
Helen Newberry Joy Student Services Center, Room 3 West
Detroit, MI 48202
Scholarships for Arab Americans attending Wayne State as undergraduates. As many as 18 scholarships totaling $14,000 are offered annually.
Please click here for more information.
Application deadline: March 31, 2016
2121 Salina Street
Dearborn, MI 48120
The availability of scholarships varies from year to year. Recently the Association granted scholarships of $1,000 each to 11 Yemeni American high school seniors. For more information and to apply, please click here.
Application Deadline: TBD (as of 05/10/17)
Arab Students Studying in the United States
Our mission is to secure and administer valuable undergraduate scholarships and educational opportunities for qualified Palestinian students from the West Bank, Gaza, Lebanon and Jordan. We believe that education and intercultural exchange is the essential path to peace, stability and development.
As a registered charitable foundation working in partnership with U.S. colleges, businesses, host families and relief organizations, we seek to make our mission a reality.
For more information on how to apply for this scholarship, click here.
Bint Jebail Cultural Center
Attn: Scholarship Committee
6220 Miller Road
Dearborn, MI 48126
fax: (313) 584-7216
Offers multiple scholarships of $500 to Arab American students in Michigan, although Arab American students from other states are encouraged to apply as well. Students must be high school seniors and have a cumulative GPA of 3.5 or above. Please call or email (refer above) for a complete list of scholarship requirements and to obtain an application. If you have any questions, please call Mrs. Zaman at (313) 584-0011 for more information.
Application Deadline: TBD as of (05/10/17)
801 South Adams Road, #208
Birmingham, MI 48009-7018
(248) 646-3661 fax: (248) 646-0617
Application Deadline: July 1
The Foundation offers two annual scholarship grants of $1,000 each to qualified students of Arabic extraction enrolled in a US or Canadian medical, osteopathic or dental school. Click here to apply.
Additionally, The Houston Chapter has recently established a scholarship award and is inviting applications at this time. The purpose of the award is to provide guidance and financial assistance to eligible medical, nursing, dental, pharmacy, osteopathy, optometry, chiropractor and post-doctoral students of Arab Heritage in obtaining elective training at one of Houston ‘s medical institutions.
The application process is open all year round and applications are reviewed on a quarterly basis by the scholarship committee.
Awards are granted on a competitive and limited basis depending on funding availability. The maximum award to any individual is $2500.00
Application forms and more detailed information can be found at http://www.aama-houston.org.
Application deadline: June 15, 2017
Launched in 2000, the Onsi Sawiris Scholarship Program(OSSP) has made it possible for over 70 extraordinary Egyptian men and women to pursue undergraduate and graduate degrees at prestigious colleges and universities in the United States in fields that will enhance the economic prosperity of Egypt. The scholarships are merit based and include tuition expenses, a living allowance, health insurance, and other benefits. The program is funded by Orascom Construction Industries (OCI) through the Sawiris Foundation for Social Development to invest in the Egyptian youth to advance the Egyptian economy and improve the quality of life in the Egyptian society.
- Help outstanding Egyptian youth pursue educational opportunities at top universities in the United States in various fields of study.
- Insure that the Egyptian economy maintains its competitiveness by supplementing its workforce with a continuous stream of driven and talented professionals who are results-oriented.
Program Activities and Results
- More than 70 talented Egyptian men and women pursued academic degrees at top universities in the United States and have returned to Egypt, and they are currently contributing to Egypt's development.
- Two in five of the OSSP has been a female, reflecting the commitment of OSSP in enabling women to contribute to Egypt's development. They have pursued master's degrees in various fields of study.
Learn more and apply here.
(for both Arab and Arab American students)
This scholarship award has been established by the AAAEA Scholarship Committee. The award is presented to an Undergraduate or Graduate, Engineer, Architect or Computer Science student who is also a student member of AAAEA. The main objective is to promote Engineering, Architecture and Computer Science as worthy professions and to foster stronger ties to the AAAEA and to the Arab American Community. At least one scholarship will be awarded annually in an amount of at least $1,000. The names of the winner(s) will be announced at the Annual AAAEA National Conference. The winner(s) will receive a certificate and a check.
The AAAEA scholarship is available to student members who are attending an accredited university.
The applicant must complete and submit the following materials:
1. The Scholarship Application Form. Download Application PDF here.
2. An official college transcript indicating course grades and cumulative grade point average.
3. A letter of recommendation written by a faculty member (from the student’s field of study)
4. An adequate description of the applicant’s extracurricular activities. The description should highlight relevant work experience, participation in AAAEA, student/campus activities, involvement in community organizations or a combination of these.
5. An essay addressing the applicant’s interest in his/her field of study, the most important issue currently being addressed in the applicant’s field, and the responsibility of the Engineers, Architects or Computer Scientists to society and to AAAEA.
If the Scholarship Committee deems it necessary, a fifteen minute phone interview may be scheduled with the applicants.
E-mail all application materials (.pdf format) to: email@example.com
Include in the subject line: National AAAEA Scholarship Committee
Mail all application materials to:
National AAAEA Scholarship Committee
P. O. Box 1536
Chicago, IL 60690-1536
Application deadline: TBD (as of 2/1/16)
The American Association of Yemeni Students and Professionals is granting scholarships to outstanding high school seniors and undergraduate students for the 2015 year.
- Must be MI resident.
- Must be either a high school senior or college undergraduate
- Must show proof of college acceptance (letter, schedule, transcript, ID)
- Must attend the scholarship ceremony
- Completing the online application
Application deadline: April 21, 2017
The application will reopen January 3, 2018. The Advisory Committee of the Barakat Trust meets in the early spring of each year to consider applications, and applicants are informed of the results by early Summer.
Please read the Notes for Applicants (below) carefully before completing the form. Please check that you are eligible for the award(s) for which you are applying. They cannot accept applications in any other field than Islamic Art History, Architecture and Archaeology under any circumstances. Please do not apply for funding in any other subject.
As of this year, applicants will apply using out Application Portal by clicking here.
An application will not be considered unless the following have been received by the due date:
- Application form
- An electronic example of applicant's work
- Two references sent independently from referees, which must be received by the closing date for applications. Referees should be acquainted with the candidate and his or her work, and in the case of scholarly research, should be senior academics. References must be typed on the headed paper of the institution, and sent by email (ideally as .pdf files) directly from the referees official work email. References emailed from personal or free accounts will not be accepted.
Those applying to come to the U.K. as Visiting Scholars, should provide at least one letter of support from a senior member of a university or equivalent institution in the U.K. and assurance that access to the material relevant for their research will be afforded them.
Anyone applying for a travel grant to study specific manuscripts or items in a museum or library must obtain the relevant permissions to view the items in advance of applying. They cannot make grants without knowing that the applicant has permission to work, or that specific items are actually present and not out on loan.
30777 Northwestern Highway, Ste. 300
Farmington Hills, MI 48334
Scholarship Award Terms:
1. Scholarship recipients are REQUIRED to attend the “Chaldean Scholarship Luncheon”, where they will receive their certificate. Non-attendance will be considered a forfeit of the award barring illness or an emergency.
2. All awards are a one time, non-renewable grant.
3. Awards are for Chaldean high school graduates and Chaldean college graduates continuing on to higher education. Awards must be used within the academic year they are awarded barring illness, emergency, or military service. Must be graduating class of 2016 to be eligible.
4. All applicants must be Michigan residents.
- Please review all requirements BEFORE registering using the form on your right.
- Registration deadline is May 20, 2016 at 5pm.
- Please mail a copy of as many of the following documents available:
- Must be Chaldean
- Must be a Michigan resident
- Must be a graduating High School Senior or College graduate continuing on to higher education
- Must have a 3.3 GPA or higher
- Must mail in a copy of academic transcripts and ACT/SAT scores
- Must submit letters of recommendation, extracurricular activities, certificates, and/or awards
- Must submit a brief biography about yourself (1 paragraph)
To qualify for the Newcomer Scholarship, you must be a newcomer to America within the last 5 years in addition to the requirements above. Please check the Newcomer box in your online registration in order for your application to be considered.
Mail documents to:
Application deadline: TBD (as of 05/10/17)
3607 O Street, NW
Washington, DC 20007
(202) 687-4455 fax: (202) 337-1559
The English for Heritage Language Speakers (EHLS) program is an intensive program of study for adults who possess a high level of proficiency in a critical language and want to achieve professional proficiency in English. Conducted by CAL in partnership with the Georgetown University Center for Language Education and Development, EHLS gives participants the English listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills they need to succeed in professional positions in the federal government.
Please click here for more information about their scholarship program.
For application deadlines and the application, please click here.
Application deadline for 2018: July 17, 2017
Washington, DC 20036-3363
Application Deadline: Awarded on Rolling Basis
The principal mission of the Hope Fund is to provide a college education for young people who have demonstrated academic excellence, determination and drive. We provide scholarships to Palestinian refugees living below the poverty line throughout the MidEast, but especially in the West Bank, Gaza Strip, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria where the needs are most urgent. We strive to award an equal number of scholarships to young men and women.
To be eligible for the Scholarship Program You Must be:
- Legal resident of the West Bank, East Jerusalem, or Gaza Strip. Or a registered Palestinian refugee outside the Palestinian territories.
- Come from a socio economically disadvantaged background.
- Currently in the 11 or 12th grade and have grade average of 90% or better.
- Show fluency in spoken and written English.
- Must not be a U.S. citizen or green card holder.
To learn how to apply contact the office nearest you:
- Lebanon: HopefundLebanon@amideast.org
- West Bank: HopefundWestbank@amideast.org
- Gaza: HopefundGaza@amideast.org
Qalam wa Lawh Center for Arabic studies is pleased to announce new scholarships available for intensive study of Modern Standard Arabic. The Ibn Battuta Merit Scholarships aim to reward students for excellence and dedication to the study of the Arabic language as well as promote the study of Arabic as a foreign language. Prospective students may apply to either one of the semester programs (fall, spring) or else to the winter and summer programs.
- Full Scholarships cover all tuition and housing costs for the duration of the program (an approximate value of $3715.00 for semester programs, and $1250.00 for the winter and summer sessions).
- Partial Scholarships cover tuition-only costs for the duration of the program (an estimated $2100 for semester programs, and $700 for the winter and summer sessions)
- Transportation to/from Morocco is the responsibility of awardees.
REQUIREMENTS: Applicants must write a 600-1,000 word essay answering “What do you hope to achieve through your study of the Arabic language?” Applicants must have completed a minimum of four University semesters in Modern Standard Arabic or equivalent study (at least 240 documented contact hours at a private institution). Applicants must have three written recommendations, including at least one from an Arabic Language Instructor/Professor. Applicants must provide graded transcripts documenting previous Arabic study.
All applications must be postmarked by the specified deadline for each session. Applications sent after the deadline will not be considered.
HOW TO APPLY: send completed application form and all required attachments (photocopy of passport, recommendation letters, essay, and transcripts) via email or post to Qalam wa Lawh Center for Arabic Studies attn: Ibn Battuta Scholarship
Phone: + 44 (0)20 7 593 5420
The Scholarships Programme provides students and young professionals, recognized for their leadership potential, with educational and training opportunities that will help their career development, will enable them to achieve impact in their professional fields and ultimately to bring benefits to others in their countries of origin. These opportunities generally take the form of postgraduate scholarships at Masters and (exceptionally) PhD levels at UK universities; though other professional development opportunities are also occasionally provided.
Applications are restricted to candidates who are Syrian, Lebanese, Jordanian or Palestinian (including Palestinians inside Israel); Applications for study at universities outside the United Kingdom cannot be considered;
Application deadline: TBD (as of 05/10/17)
The Critical Language Scholarship (CLS) Program is a fully-funded overseas language and cultural immersion program for American undergraduate and graduate students. With the goal of broadening the base of Americans studying and mastering critical languages and building relationships between the people of the United States and other countries, CLS provides study opportunities to a diverse range of students from across the United States at every level of language learning.
Program deadlines vary by country, for more information click here.
The Evergreen State College, Library 1221
2700 Evergreen Parkway NW
Olympia, Washington 98505
This $3,000 scholarship is for students dedicated to gaining a better understanding of the Middle East and to working, locally or internationally, to further Middle East peace. Areas of interest may include Arab culture and Arabic language, US Policy in the Middle East, and peace, justice, and conflict resolution studies. Applicants must show they will use their studies to promote human rights and social justice through community activism and/or political advocacy and must be currently enrolled in Evergreen State College.
Application Deadline: TBD (as of 05/10/17)
224 W. 57th Street
NYC, NY 10019
(212) 547-6926 fax: (212) 548-4623
The Paul & Daisy Soros Fellowships for New Americans is a $90,000 merit-based fellowship exclusively for immigrants and children of immigrants who are pursuing graduate school in the United States. The program draws nearly 1,800 applications annually for just 30 fellowships.
The Soros Fellowship provides graduate school scholarships to "new Americans" to assist them in becoming leaders in various fields. Additional information is available on the Fellowship Program's website. Applicants must either have a bachelor's degree or be in their final year of undergraduate study.
1330 New Hampshire Ave NW, Suite 104
Washington, DC 20034
(202) 659-5007 fax: (202) 296-0224
For more information on the upcoming UPA Scholarship Program click here.
UPA's scholarship program provides tuition costs to hundreds of qualified students attending universities in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. With long-term development of Palestine in mind, UPA encourages students in technical fields including engineering, economics, and teaching to apply. Since 1986, UPA’s University Scholarship Program has helped nearly 2,000 qualified students realize their dreams of higher education, providing tuition funds for study at local universities. For the 2010-2011 academic year, UPA awarded scholarships to 136 students, who were awarded between $750 and $1,250 each for the academic year, depending on their financial need and tuition costs.